Glossary of grammer terms

    تمر دردشة الساحة الخاصة بالمتصفح والموبايل بفترة صيانة دورية هذا ونعتذر للجميع على الإنقطاع المؤقت بإمكانكم المشاركة في المنتدى لحين عودتها :)

    • Glossary of grammer terms

      hello everyone,
      One of the most important things we need to learn when we learn other langauges is Grammer. Although it may be quite boring and sometimes difficult its a real necessity in order to achieve good command in that langauge. English like all other languages has its own grammer which quite difficult to some extent. This is why it has a huge collection of glossary. These are important in terms of assissting you to understand english grammer more easily. These maybe known to some and not to others.....! As i said its a huge collection, this is why i've divided them into ten groups. this is the first group, so if like the topic and would like me to post the rest, jsut say so. if not i will post no further groups after this.....its about what the readers want.

      These are from the COBUILD STUDENT'S GRAMMER


      Group 1


      Abstract noun a noun used to refer to a quality, idea, feeling, or experience, rather than a physical object;
      Eg. Size, reason, joy.

      Active voice verb groups such as ‘gives’, ‘took’, ‘has made’, which are used when the subject of the verb is the person or thing doing the action or responsible for it. Compare with passive voice.

      Adjective a word used to tell you more about a person or thing, such as their appearance, colour, size, or other qualities;
      Eg… a pretty blue dress.

      Adverb a word that gives more information about when, how, where, or in what circumstances something happens;
      Eg. Quickly, now.

      Adverbial an adverb, or an adverb phrase, prepositional phrase, or noun group which does the same job as an adverb, giving more information about when, how, where, or in what circumstances something happens;
      Eg. Then, very, quickly, in the street, the next day.

      Adverbial of degree an adverbial which indicates the amount or extent of a feeling or quality;
      Eg. She felt extremely tired.

      Adverbial of duration an adverbial which indicates how long something continues or lasts;
      Eg. He lived in London for six years.

      Adverbial of frequency an adverbial which indicates how often something happens;
      Eg. She sometimes goes to the cinema.

      Adverbial of manner an adverbial which indicates the way in which something happens or is done;
      Eg. She watched carefully.

      Adverbial of place an adverbial which gives more information about position or direction;
      Eg. They are upstairs… Move closer.

      Adverbial of probability an adverbial which gives more information about how sure you are about something;
      Eg. I’ve probably lost it.

      Adverbial of time an adverbial which gives more information about when something happens;
      Eg. I saw her yesterday.

      Adverb phrase two adverbs used together;
      Eg. She spoke very quietly… He did not play well enough to win.

      Affirmative a clause or sentence in the affirmative has the subject followed by the verb.

      Apostrophe s an ending (’s) added to a noun to indicate possession;
      Eg… Harriet’s daughter… the professor’s husband… the Managing Director’s secretary.

      Auxiliary verb one of the verbs ‘be’, ‘have’, and ‘do’ When they are used with a main verb to form tenses, negatives, and questions.
    • Glossary of grammer terms

      Althugh that I didn’t get that many replies, I am here again posting the 2nd group. I thought if Max is interested then its worth while..


      Group 2


      Base form the form of a verb without any endings added to it, which is used in the ‘to’-infinitive and for the imperative;
      Eg. Walk, go, have, be. The base form is the form you look up in a dictionary

      Cardinal number a number used in counting;
      Eg. One, seven, nineteen

      Clause a group of words containing a verb

      Collective noun a noun that refers to a group of people or things, which can be used with a singular or plural verb
      Eg. Committee, team, family

      Comparative an adjective or adverb with ‘-er’ on the end or ‘more’ in front of it;
      Eg. Slower, more important, more carefully

      Complement a noun group or adjective, which comes after a link verb such as ‘be’, and gives more information about the subject of the clause;
      Eg. She is a teacher… She is tired

      Complex sentence a sentence consisting of a main clause and a subordinate clause;
      Eg. She wasn’t thinking very quickly because she was tired

      Compound sentence a sentence consisting of two or more main clauses linked by ‘and’, or ‘but’;
      Eg. They picked her up and took her into the house

      Contrast clause a subordinate clause, usually introduced by ‘although’ or ‘in spite of the fact that’, which contrasts with a main clause;
      Eg. Although I like her, I find her hard to talk to

      Conditional clause a subordinate clause, usually starting with ‘if’ or ‘unless’, which is used to talk about possible situations and their results;
      Eg. They would be rich if they had taken my advice… We’ll go to the park, unless it rains

      Conjunction a word such as ‘and’, ‘because’, or ‘nor’, that links two clauses, groups, or words

      Continuous tense a tense which contains a form of the verb ‘be’ and a present participle;
      Eg. She was laughing… They had been playing badminton

      Coordinating conjunction a conjunction such as ‘and’, ‘but’, or ‘or’, which links two main clauses

      Count noun a noun which has both singular and plural forms;
      Eg. dog/dogs, lemon/lemons, foot/feet

      Countable noun another name for count noun

      Declarative another name for affirmative
    • Glossary of grammer terms

      am back again, this time with



      Group 3


      Defining relative clause a relative clause which idenfies the
      person or thing that is being talked about;
      Eg. …the lady who lives next door… I wrote down everything that she said

      Definite article the determiner ‘the’. Delexical verb a common verb such as ‘give’, ‘have’, ‘make’, or ‘take’, which has very little meaning in itself and is used with a noun as object that describes the action;
      Eg. She gave a small cry… I’ve just had a bath

      Demonstrative one of the words ‘this’, ‘that’, ‘these’, and ‘those’;
      Eg. …this woman… …that tree… That looks interesting… This is fun

      Descriptive adjective an adjective which describes a person or thing, for example indicating their size, age, shape, or colour, rather than expressing your opinion of that person or thing

      Determiner one of a group of words including ‘the’, ‘a’, ‘some’, and ‘my’, which are used at the beginning of a noun group

      Direct object a noun group referring to the person or thing affected by an action, in a clause with a verb in the active voice;
      Eg. She wrote her name… I shut the windows

      Direct speech the actual words spoken by someone

      Ditransitive verb another name for a verb with two objects, such as ‘give’, ‘take’, or ‘sell’;
      Eg. He gave me a pen

      Double-transitive verb another name for a verb with two objects

      ‘-ed’ adjective an adjective which has the same form as the ‘-ed’ form of a regular verb, or the past participle of an irregular verb;
      Eg. …boiled potatoes… …a broken wing

      ‘-ed’ form the form of a regular verb used for the past simple and for the past participle

      emphasizing adverb an adverb such as ‘absolutely’ or ‘utterly’, which modifies adjectives that express extreme qualities, such as ‘astonishing’ and ‘wonderful’;
      Eg. You were absolutely wonderful

      Ergative verb a verb which is both transitive and intransitive in the same meaning. The object of the transitive use is the subject of the intransitive use;
      Eg. He boiled a kettle… The kettle boiled

      Gerund another name for the ‘-ing’ form when it is used as a noun

      Imperative the form of a verb used when giving orders and commands, which is the same as its base form;
      Eg. Come here… Take two tablets every four hours… Enjoy yourself
    • Glossary of grammer terms

      Group 4


      Impersonal ‘it’ ‘it’ used as an impersonal subject to introduce new information
      Eg. It’s raining… It’s ten O’clock

      Indefinite article the determiners ‘a’ and ‘an’
      Indefinite adverb a small group of adverbs including ‘anywhere’ and ‘somewhere’ which are used to indicate place in a general way

      Indefinite pronoun a small group of pronouns including ‘someone’ and ‘anything’ which are used to refer to people or things without saying exactly who or what they are

      Indirect object an object used with verbs that take two objects. For example, in ‘I gave him the pen’ and ‘I gave the pen to him’, ‘him’ is the indirect object and ‘pen’ is the direct object

      Indirect question a question used to ask for information or help;
      Eg. Do you know where Jane is?... I wonder which hotel it was

      Indirect speech the words you use to report what someone has said, rather than using their actual words. Also called reported speech

      Infinitive the base form of a verb;
      Eg. I wanted to go… She helped me dig the garden

      ‘-ing’ adjective an adjective which has the same form as the present participle of a verb;
      Eg. …a smiling face… …a winning streak

      ‘-ing’ form a verb form ending in ‘-ing’ which is used to form verb tenses and as an adjective or a noun. Also called the present participle

      interrogative pronoun one of the pronouns ‘who’, ‘whose’, ‘whom’, ‘what’, and ‘which’, when they are used to ask questions

      interrogative sentence a sentence in the form of a question

      intransitive verb a verb which does not take an object;
      Eg. She arrived… I was yawning

      Irregular a word or form which does not follow the normal rules

      Irregular verb a verb that has three forms or five forms, or whose forms do not follow the normal rules

      Link verb a verb which takes a complement rather than an object;
      Eg. Be, become, seem, appear

      Main clause a clause which does not depend on another clause, and is not part of another clause

      Main verb all verbs which are not auxiliaries or modals

      Manner clause a subordinate clause which describes the way in which something is done, usually introduced with ‘as’ or ‘like’;
      Eg. She talks like her mother used to

      Modal a verb such as ‘can’, ‘might’, or ‘will’, which is always the first word in a verb group and is followed by the base form of a verb. Modals are used to express requests, offers, suggestions, wishes, intentions, politeness, possibility, probability, certainty, obligation, and so on.

      Mood the mood of a clause is the way in which the verb forms are used to show whether the clause is a statement, command, or a question
    • Glossary of grammer terms

      Group 5


      Negative a negative clause, question, sentence, or statement is one of which has a negative word such as ‘not’, and indicates the absence or opposite of something, or is used to say that something is not the case;
      Eg. I don’t know you… I’ll never forget

      Negative word a word such as ‘never’, ‘no’, ‘not’, ‘nothing’, or ‘nowhere’, which makes a clause, question, sentence, or statement negative

      Non-defining relative clause a relative clause which gives more information about someone or something, but which is not needed to identify them because we already know who or what they are;
      Eg. That’s Mary, who was at university with me

      Non-finite clause a ‘to’-infinitive clause, ‘-ed’ clause or ‘-ing’ clause

      Noun a word which refers to people, things, ideas, feelings, or qualities
      Eg. Woman, Harry, guilt

      Noun group a group of words which acts as the subject, complement, or object of a verb, or as the object of a preposition

      Object a noun group which refers to a person or thing that is affected by the action described by a verb. Prepositions also have noun groups as objects

      Object pronoun one of a set of pronouns including ‘me’, ‘him’, and ‘them’, which are used to as the object of a verb or preposition. Object pronouns are also used as complements after ‘be’;
      Eg. I hit him… it’s me

      Opinion adjective an adjective which you use to express your opinion of a person or thing, rather than just describing them

      Ordinal number a number used to indicate where something comes in an order or sequence;
      Eg. First, fifth, tenth, hundredth

      Participle a verb form used for making different tenses. Verbs have two participles, a present participle and a past participle

      Particle an adverb or preposition which combines with verbs to form phrasal verbs

      Passive voice verb group such as ‘was given’, when the subject of the verb is the person or thing that is affected by the action

      Past form the form of a verb, often ending in ‘-ed’, which is used for the past simple tense
    • Glosary of grammer terms

      Group 6


      Past participle a verb form which is used to form perfect tenses and passives. Some past participles are also used as adjectives;
      Eg. Watched, broken, swum

      Person one of the three classes of people who can be involved in something that is said. The person who is speaking or writing is called the first person. The people who are listening or reading are called the second person. The people or things that are being talked about are called the third person

      Personal pronoun one of the group words including ‘I’, ‘you’, and ‘me’, which are used to refer back to yourself, the people you are talking to, or the people or things you are talking about

      Phrasal verb a combination of a verb and a particle, which together have a different meaning to the verb on its own;
      Eg. Back down, hand over, look forward to

      Plural the form of a count noun or verb, which is used to refer to talk about more than one person or thing;
      Eg. Dogs have ears… The women were outside

      Plural noun a noun which is normally used only in the plural form;
      Eg. Trousers, Scissors

      Positive a positive clause, question, sentence, or statement is one which does not contain a negative word such as ‘not’

      Possessive one of the determiners ‘my’, ‘your’, ‘his’, ‘her’, ‘its’, ‘our’, or ‘their’, which is used to show that one person or thing belongs to another;
      Eg. Your car

      Possessive adjective another name for possessive

      Possessive pronoun one of the pronouns ‘mine’, ‘yours’, ‘hers’, ‘his’, ‘ours’, or ‘theirs’

      Preposition a word such as ‘by’, ‘with’, or ‘from’, which is always followed by a noun group

      Prepositional phrase a structure consisting of a preposition followed by a noun group as its object;
      Eg. On the table, by the sea

      Pronoun a word which you use instead of a noun, when you do not need or want to name someone or something directly;
      Eg. It, you, none

      Proper noun a noun which is the name of a particular person, place, organisation, or building. Proper nouns are always written with a capital letter;
      Eg. Nigel, Muscat, the United Nations

      Purpose clause a subordinate clause which is used to talk about the intention that someone has when they do something;
      Eg. I came here in order to ask you out to dinner
    • Glossary or grammer terms

      Group 7


      Qualifier a word or group of words, such as an adjective, prepositional phrase, or relative clause, which comes after a noun and gives more information about it;
      Eg. …the person involved… …a book with a blue cover… …the shop that I went into

      Question a sentence which normally has the verb in front of the subject, and which is used to ask someone about something;
      Eg. Have you any money?

      Question tag an auxiliary or modal with a pronoun, which is used to turn a statement into a question;
      Eg. He’s very friendly, isn’t he?... I can come can’t I?

      Reason clause a subordinate clause, usually introduced by ‘because’, ‘since’, or ‘as’, which is used to explain why something happens or is done;
      Eg. Since you’re here, we’ll start

      Reciprocal verb a verb which describes an action which involves two people doing the same thing to each other;
      Eg. I met you at the dance… We’ve met one another before… They met in the street

      Reflexive pronoun a pronoun ending in ‘-self’ or ‘-selves’, such as ‘myself’ or ‘themselves’, which you use as the object of a verb when you want to say that the object is the same person or thing as the subject of the verb in the same clause;
      Eg. He hurt himself

      Reflexive verb a verb which is normally used with a reflexive pronoun as object;
      Eg. He contented himself with the thought that he had the only set of keys

      Regular verb a verb that has four forms, and follows the normal rules

      Relative clause a subordinate clause which gives more information about someone or something mentioned in the main clause

      Relative pronoun ‘that’, or a ‘wh’-word such as ‘who’ or ‘which’, when it is used to introduce a relative clause;
      Eg. …the girl who was carrying the bag

      Reported clause the clause in a report structure which indicates what someone has said;
      Eg. She said that I couldn’t see her

      Reported question a question which is reported using a report structure rather than the exact words used by the speaker

      Reported speech the words you use to report what someone has said, rather than using their actual words. Also called indirect speech

      Reporting clause the clause in report structure which contains the reporting verb

      Reporting verb a verb which describes what people say or think;
      Eg. Suggest, say, wonder

      Report structure a structure which is used to report what someone says or think, rather than repeating their exact words;
      Eg. She told me she’d be late
    • Glossary of grammer terms

      Group 8


      Result clause a subordinate clause introduced by ‘so’, ‘so…that’, or ‘such…(that)’,which indicates the result of an action or situation;
      Eg. I don’t think there’s any more news, so I’ll finish

      Semi-modal a term used by some grammars to refer to the verbs ‘dare’, ‘need’, and ‘used to’, which behaves like modals in some structures

      Sentence a group of words which express a statement, question, or command. A sentence usually has a verb and a subject, and may be a simple sentence with one clause, or a compound or complex sentence with two or more clauses. In writing, a sentence has a capital letter at the beginning and a full stop, question mark, or exclamation mark at the end

      Short form a form in which one or more letters are omitted and two words are joined together, for example an auxiliary or modal an ‘not’, or a subject pronoun and an auxiliary or modal;
      Eg. Aren’t, couldn’t, he’d, I’m, it’s, she’s

      Simple tense a present or past tense formed without using an auxiliary verb;
      Eg. I wait… she sang

      Singular the form of a count noun or verb which is used to refer to or talk about one person or thing;
      Eg. A dog was in the back of the car… That woman is my mother

      Singular noun a noun which is normally used only in the singular form;
      Eg. The sun, a bath

      Strong verb another name for [B]irregular verb[/B]

      Subject the noun group in a clause that refers to the person or thing who does the action expressed by the verb;
      Eg. We were going shopping

      Subject pronoun one of the set of pronouns including ‘I’, ‘she’, and ‘they’, which are used as the subject of a verb

      Subordinate clause a clause which must be used with a main clause and is not usually used alone, for example a time clause, conditional clause, relative clause, or result clause, and which begins with a subordinating conjunction such as ‘because’ or ‘while’.

      Subordinating conjunction a conjunction such as ‘although’, ‘as if’, ‘because’ or ‘while’, which you use to begin a subordinate clause

      Superlative an adjective or adverb with ‘-est’ on the end or ‘most’ in front of it;
      Eg. Thinnest, quickest, most beautiful

      Tag question a statement to which a question tag has been added;
      Eg. She’s quiet, isn’t she?..

      Tense the form of a verb which shows whether you are referring to the past, present, or future

      Future ‘will’ or ‘shall’ with the base form of the verb, used to refer to future events;
      Eg. She will come tomorrow
    • Glossary of grammer terms

      Group 9


      Future continuous ‘will’ or ‘shall’ with ‘be’ and a present participle, used to refer to future events;
      Eg. She will be going soon

      Future perfect ‘will’ or ‘shall’ with ‘have’ and a past participle, used to refer to future events;
      Eg. i shall have finished by tomorrow

      Future perfect continuous ‘will’ or ‘shall’ with ‘have been’ and a present participle, used to refer to future events;
      Eg. I will have been walking for three hours by then

      Past simple the past form of a verb, used to refer to past events;
      Eg. They waited

      Past continuous ‘was’ or ‘were’ with a present participle, usually used to refer to past events;
      Eg. they were worrying about it yesterday

      Past perfect ‘had’ with past participle, used to refer to past events;
      Eg. She had finished

      Past perfect continuous ‘had been’ with a present participle, used to refer to past events;
      Eg. He had been waiting for hours

      Present simple the base form and the third person singular form of a verb, usually used to refer to present events;
      Eg. I like apples… My brother hates them

      Present continuous the present simple of ‘be’ with a present participle, usually used to refer to present events;
      Eg. Things are improving

      Present perfect ‘have’ or ‘has’ with a past participle, used to refer to past events which exist in the present;
      Eg. She has loved him for ten years

      Present perfect continuous ‘have been’ or ‘has been’ with a present participle, used to refer to past events which continue in the present;
      Eg. We have been sitting here for hours

      that’-clause a clause starting with ‘that’, used mainly when reporting what someone has said;
      Eg. She said that she’d wash up for me
    • Glossary of grammer terms

      am back again, this time with the last and final group. i really hope that many found this topic interesting and made use of it|e


      Group 10


      Time clause a subordinate clause which indicates the time of an event;
      Eg. I’ll phone you when I get back

      Time expression a noun group used as an adverbial of time;
      Eg. Last night, the day after tomorrow, the next time

      to’-infinitive the base form of a verb preceded by ‘to’;
      eg. To go, to have, to jump

      transitive verb a verb which takes an object;
      eg. She’s wasting her money

      uncount noun a noun which has only one form, takes a singular verb and is not used with ‘a’ or numbers. Unacount nouns often refer to substances, qualities, feelings, activities, and abstract ideas
      Eg. Coal, courage, anger, help, fun

      Verb a word which is used with a subject to say what someone or something does, or what happens to them;
      Eg. Sing, spill, die

      Verb group a main verb, or a main verb with one or more auxiliaries, a modal, or a modal and an auxiliary, which is used with a subject to say what someone does, or what happens to them;
      Eg. I’ll show them… She’s been sick

      wh’-question a question which expects the answer to give more information than just ‘yes’ or ‘no’;
      Eg. What happened?... Where did he go?

      wh’-word one of a group of words starting with ‘wh-‘, such as ‘what’, ‘when’ or ‘who’, which are used in ‘wh’-questions. ‘how’ is also called a ‘wh’-word because it behaves like the other ‘wh’-words

      yes/no’-question a question which can be answered by just ‘yes’ or ‘no’, without giving anymore information;
      Eg. Would you like some more tea?
    • grammar or vocabulary

      Dear MAster
      i would like to appresiate ur grammar work. i do not know but i beleave that vocabulary z more important more than grammarr in order to communicate and use the language. Grammar is the glue which connect the different part of the sentences but actually lexis is the operator who gives the meaning. sorry 4 my language (weak i know.)
    • The master


      WoW that's a great conatus. To be truthful with U, U have done something which every one appreciated. Since I had been studied English for quite long time for almost seven years, but I didn’t hassle myself to read this Glossary of grammar terms in book but when I saw it the learning English forum, I have printed it and I kept it for a reference in case if I need them in future. I admit that you should be more than supervisor
      It is really an inordinate effort
    • كاتب الرسالة الأصلية خطاف المنايا88
      Thanks very much (The king master ) you work very hard to help us to study English . thank you again.




      You're more than welcome dear brother
      Its a real pleasure to have you around with us in the english section. i hope that you find being here most useful
      best wishes
      |e
    • Islami كتب:

      Thank you very much my friend abaot your information

      And I hope to all to study English language very well




      You're more than welcome dear brother

      By the way, i would like to take this oppertunity to welcome you aboard
      in the english section. its a pleasure to have you around, so let us
      hear more from you. With best wishes, My regards
      :)
    • Hei the Mater.... $$-e

      what a endeavour job you did here.... I can not except congratulate you and thank you from the heart for all this... :(

      ~!@@ad Goodness it realy has been too long since I left this dear forum, and I realy am sorry for this

      But at the same time I hope to continue contributing with such topics and not just watch them sticking there forever... |t

      How about we add something more useful that would aid us enhace our use of English ~!@q Grammar.
      And that is by writing sentences ensambling more than one rule of mentioned by The Master and make learning them more engrossing. :)

      I wish that an informative topic like this one be kept alive not elide ~!@@ai


      Now let's try write down sentences of our own and try to explain them grammatically, allowing others to corect them if wrong, and ask for more elaboration and clarifications if needed. :)


      I promise to be back tomorrow with a sentence and an explanation to it. |e


      Nabi 7arake shabab ok?!! |a

      see ya guys very soon inshallah